September 16, 2016, ©. Leeham Co: In our Corners on East bloc aeronautical industries, we will now look at the main Russian civil aircraft companies. There is one overall company since 2006, United Aircraft Corporation (UAC).
This is a state-owned holding which incorporates 30 of the main companies from the Soviet times, employing 100,000 people. The aim is to coordinate and optimize Russia’s project and production resources around the present aircraft and the future projects that Russia can afford to drive.
UAC consolidates several company groups that were formed after the fall of the Soviet Union 1990 and up to the formation of UAC in February 2006.
We will now dissect the main UAC groups and companies that are involved in civil aircraft development and production.
As described in the last Corner, one of the company groups that managed the time after 1990 better than others was the Sukhoi group. Sukhoi was a design bureau but was expanded after 1990 into a vertically integrated group by including KnAAPO (Komsomolsk-On-Amur manufacturing company) and NAPO (Novosibirsk Aircraft Plant) in the group, Figure 1.
Headquarter and design bureau is in NW Moscow, Figure 2, where also the Sukhoi Civil Aircraft company is placed. Sukhoi is developer of the regional SSJ100. Final assembly of SSJ100 is at KnAAPO in the far East, Figure 1, with parts production at several plants in Russia, among them NAPO. Around 26,000 people work in the Sukhoi group.
Irkut group was the other company that fared reasonably well in the post Soviet era. It was vertically integrated when the Irkut manufacturing company (Figure 1) incorporated the Yakovlev design bureau 2004 (NW Moscow, Figure 2).
The aircraft that has been produced by the manufacturing company is shown in Figure 3. It shows that very few designs were made by its present design competence, the Yakovlev design bureau. Only the recent YAK-130 military jet trainer was developed by Yakovlev.
The large project for the group is now the MC-21 single aisle airliner where Irkut is program leader and houses the Final Assembly Line. The group has around 14,000 employees.
The third grouping which designs and produces civil transport aircraft (the IL-96 wide-body aircraft) in UAC is the Ilyushin group. Headquarters and design bureau is in NW Moscow (Figure 2). Production of the Ilyushin IL-96 is done at VASO (Voronezh Aircraft Production Association, Figure 1) which had Ilyushin as major shareholder (shares now transferred to UAC). The companies employs around 14,000 people.
The present product runner is the IL-76 transporter in various forms, it is produced by Aviastar (Figure 1). Ilyushin’s major future civil project is leading the Russian-Chinese wide-body program.
Tupolev was the major design bureau for airliners in the Soviet Union (Tu-104, Tu-124, Tu-154). Today, the only produced Tupolev airliner is the Tu-204/214 “Boeing 757” class airliner, which is produced in small numbers by Tupolev’s own manufacturing arm, Kazan (Tu-214 made by Kazan Aviation Plant, KAPO, Figure 1) and by Aviastar (Figure 1), which makes the Tu-204 variant. Tupolev and Kazan employs around 15,000 people.
Tupolev now concentrates on strategic bombers and is progressively leaving the civil airliner field.
United Aircraft Corporation
The the gathering of all these companies was made by forming the state owned United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) February 2006. The initial role is to coordinate the activities of all the above companies and to create one unified way forward.
Today a very small part of the UAC turnover is civil airliners. Goal is to increase the civil airliner activities so that they constitute 50% of group turnover by 2025. UAC is also creating corporate functions that can gradually unify the activities of the different parts of the group, Figure 4.
This makes sense. Airlines which inducts the groups aircraft don’t want to talk to three different organizations when they operate the SSJ100, MC-21 and the future wide-body. The UAC ownership structure for the different companies is shown in Figure 5.