The struggling smaller European low cost carriers

Subscription required By Vincent Valery  Sep. 2, 2019, © Leeham News: Germania, flyBMI and Wow Air ceased operations this year. FlyBe was sold to a consortium that includes Virgin Atlantic for a symbolic amount. Norwegian Air Shuttle and Thomas Cook Airlines' financial woes are well documented in the media. Many lesser-known low-cost and leisure carriers are also struggling on the old continent. It is no secret that the airline industry is far more fragmented in Europe than the USA for historical reasons. Lufthansa CEO Carsten Spohr regularly mentions the need for further consolidation. This calls into question whether smaller European airlines can survive as independent entities under current business models.

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