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Here are airliners I think were revolutionary, as opposed to evolutionary.
Boeing 314 and Martin 130 Clippers. For their day, very long range airplanes with magnificent passenger experience.
Boeing 247. The first modern, low-wing airplane of its era. No more TriMotors or high wings.
Douglas DC-3. The first airliner able to make money just carrying passengers.
Douglas DC-4. The first long-range (for its day) land transport.
Lockheed L049 Constellation. The first pressurized transport.
deHavilland Comet. Despite the fatal flaw of metal fatigue, this is the first commercial jet transport.
Vickers Viscount: The first turboprop airliner. Sales hit 444, fewer than the DC-6 and Constellation but more than the DC-7.
Sud Caravelle. The first short- to medium-range airliner.
Boeing 707: This revolutionized air travel (see my Reader comment below, as well.)
Boeing 727. Its versatility, design and economy set standards.
Boeing 747. Nothing to add to last week’s column.
Airbus A300. This twin-jet, 250-passenger design is what American Airlines’ Frank Kolk really wanted in an airplane. (He got the DC-10 instead.) This plane, in 1974, set the stage for all twin-jet widebodies to come—even if it was a mediocre airplane at first.
A320: The first fly-by-wire airplane.
Embraer EJet: This was the first regional jet that actually provided good passenger experience and decent (though not great) carry-on space. It set entirely new standards for the subsequent RJs.
Bombardier CSeries. Although the Mitsubishi MRJ is actually the first airliner to select the Pratt & Whitney GTF engine for power, the CSeries and its new passenger standards along with the GTF prompted Airbus to create the A320neo and Boeing to launch the 737 MAX instead of an entirely new design. This kind of influence is rare. Unfortunately, a series of bad management decisions meant Bombardier blew its chance. It had to sell the program to Airbus, which drove Boeing’s decision to enter into a JV with Embraer.
Boeing 777. The 777-200/ER was in many respects just another airplane. But the -300ER proved to set the standard for the large, twin-aisle, twin-engine airplane. It killed the A340 and, in hindsight, set the long decline for the A380 even before this program was launched. Airbus envied the -300ER, which influenced the A350-1000.
Pretty much everything else, including the Boeing 787. (This view will frost a lot of cakes.)
Extra long range, better passenger experience and composites were its mantra. But the 787 didn’t create a revolution in passenger airplanes.
Airbus reluctantly went to composites with the A350. Boeing eschewed composites for the 777X. Boeing has gone back-and-forth on metal vs composites for the NMA as trying to hit cost targets proved difficult.
The 737 was an evolution of the 707/737, and the first iteration wasn’t especially compelling. The 737-200A Advanced was a good airplane and the design evolved to today’s MAX.
The 757 evolved from the 727 and the 767 wasn’t revolutionary, following as it did the A300. The A330 evolved from the A300; so did, essentially, the A340.